PSYC 255 Quiz 5 – Question and Answers

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PSYC 255 Quiz 5 – Question and Answers

  1. During the late 1980s and the early 1990s the Pepsi Challenge was in full swing.  During the challenge, participants were asked to taste cola from both Coke and Pepsi.  Once they had tasted both drinks, the participants were asked to report which was better tasting.  The results indicated that participants found Pepsi products to be better tasting.  What is the dependent variable in this study?
  2. To combat order effects that may occur with a within subjects design, many researchers will use _____________.
  3. Darley and Batson conducted a study in which the independent variable was the degree to which the participants were instructed to hurry to the other building (high-hurry, intermediate-hurry, low-hurry) and the dependent variable was the amount of help offered to a “victim” placed by the researchers between the two buildings.  This was a between subjects design.  Therefore, how many groups of participants were needed?
  4. In a __________, participants will be exposed to only one level of the independent variable.
  5. Dr. Herrman recommends that his students take the practice GRE before registering to take the real GRE.  Dr. Herrman makes this recommendation because he knows that __________ can increase performance on subsequent experiences with the same tasks.
  6. A research matrix is __________.
  7. The degree of spread among data surrounding the mean is known as _____________.
  8. Suppose we used a between subjects design to see if caffeine influenced levels of alertness.  We had three groups of participants: participants who received 8 ounces of a caffeinated beverage, participants who received 24 ounces of a caffeinated beverage, and participants who received no caffeine.  If this was a between subjects design with 30 total participants, how many participants would be in each condition?
  9. During the late 1980s and the early 1990s the Pepsi Challenge was in full swing.  During the challenge, participants were asked to taste cola from both Coke and Pepsi.  Once they had tasted both drinks, the participants were asked to report which was better tasting.  The results indicated that participants found Pepsi products to be better tasting.  This is an example of what type of research design?
  10. Dr. Roberts with the Mayo Clinic conducted a study on individuals between the ages of 70–89 and found differences in men and women.  In this example, gender of participant was the __________.
  11. When the effects of a prior treatment condition influences subsequent treatment conditions, a researcher is faced with this disadvantage to a within subject design.
  12. In a within subjects design, all participants are exposed to all levels of the independent variable.  A major concern to the participants going through all levels of the independent variable is becoming tired of participating in the study.  What disadvantage is being described here?
  13. We discussed a study known as the Stroop effect.  Stroop developed 3 types of stimuli for his study.  Each type of stimuli presented a different task that participants had to complete. Stroop then measured the amount of time it took the participants to complete each task. What is the dependent variable in this study?
  14. Carefully review the research matrix presented below.  If this is a between subjects design, how many total participants will be used in the experiment?
  15. Betsy is conducting a study on school psychologists.  She is thinking of having school psychologists complete four experimental conditions each lasting one hour.  A colleague suggests to Betsy that she modify the design so that different groups of school psychologists are used and Betsy will not have to worry about __________.
  16. Stacy has been working hard to look at the effects of homework difficulty on student desire to finish the work.  She has decided to make sure that each group is equivalent on enthusiasm for school by measuring overall levels.  Stacy then pairs up the participants based on their enthusiasm before placing them into the groups in her study.  Stacy is conducting a _____________ design.
  17. You want to replicate Barlett et al.’s research on amount of blood in a video game and measures of aggression.  Your independent variable has 4 levels: maximum blood, medium blood, low blood, and no blood.  You want to conduct a between subjects design.  How many total participants will you need if you want 10 participants in each level of the IV?
  18. Jason is interested in the topic of perception.  He has participants complete a task on a computer and measures reaction and number of errors.  Jason is thinking of repeating this task after the participants have been exposed to the independent variable.  Which of the following reasons bests describes why Jason might not want to have participants complete the task again?
  19. Which of the following statements regarding a within subjects design is correct?
  20. Which disadvantage to within subjects designs involves a participant dropping out of a study or not returning to complete additional parts to a study?
  21. A _____________ design exposes participants to all levels or conditions of the independent variable.
  22. In chapter 8, we mentioned a study that examined the relationship between where one lives (urban or rural) and when a specific form of cancer is diagnosed.  For this example, the independent variable was where one lives.  How many levels did the IV have?
  23. A participant dropping out of a study or not returning to complete additional parts to a study is known as __________.
  24. Katie is conducting a within subjects design.  Her independent variable has 2 levels that must occur 1 week apart.  In the first session during the first week, Katie has 120 participants.  However, a week later when the second session occurs, Katie only has 85 participants show up for the study.  What disadvantage to within subject designs is Katie encountering?
  25. Tamir et al. (2008) conducted a study to see what impact music has on participants playing computer games.  The researchers had participants play computer games while listening to angry, exciting, and neutral music.  The researchers then measured the participant’s performance while listening to each type of music.  What is the independent variable in this study?
  26. Recall the research conducted by Bartlett et al. (2005) on the influence of action figures on male body image.  If Barlett exposed participants to the three conditions in the same manner and found that scores on the third condition always decreased, he might be concerned about _________.
  27. Janiszewski and Uy (2008) conducted an experiment in which they had 43 participants read 10 scenarios.  In this study, the researchers wanted to determine the impact of the scenario type on the anchoring and adjusting of participants.  Anchoring and adjustment occurs when people use a starting point (anchor) as a basis to make judgments about a given scenario (adjustment).  How many levels are there for the independent variable in this study?
  28. You want to replicate Barlett et al.’s research on action figures and negative body image in young adult males.  Your independent variable has three levels: no action figures, highly muscular figures, and moderately muscular figures.  You want to conduct a between subjects design.  How many total participants will you need if you want 10 participants in each level of the IV?
  29. William the researcher conducted a study on monitor size and reaction time. The research matrix is given below.
  30. We discussed a study known as the Stroop effect.  Stroop developed 3 types of stimuli for his study.  Each type of stimuli presented a different task that participants had to complete. Stroop then measured the amount of time it took the participants to complete each task. What is the independent variable in this study?

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