PSY 550 Midterm Exam: Research Methods
Directions: This is an open-book and open-notes exam. You have 2 hours to complete the exam. The test is worth 100 points; each item is worth 10 points.
- Define and describe the six steps of the scientific method. Give an example of each step.
- When is it appropriate for a researcher to use deception in a study? When is it not appropriate? How can the negative effects of deception be minimized?
- Use Stevens’ model of measurement scales to answer these questions: a). What type of scale is used when the variable is social class? b). What type of scale is used when the variable studied is a Top 40 list of popular songs? Explain.c). What type of scale is used when the variable studied is intelligence scores (for example, on the Stanford-Binet-R)? Explain.d). What type of scale is use when the variables ….are low and normal birth weights of newborns?
- Compare and contrast the following terms: (a) test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability, (b) content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity, and (c) internal validity with external validity.
- For each of the research topics listed below, indicate the type of nonexperimental approach that would be most useful and explain why. a) Pushing ahead in line, b) Daydreaming, c) Locating the most popular painting in an art gallery, d) Studiousness in college students, and e) Determining whether a particular patient has improved with psychotherapy psy 550 midterm exam
- When designing survey questions, how would you control for each of the following response styles: (a) willingness to answer, (b) position preference, and (c) yea- or nay-saying?
- Researcher Sandy Beach found a correlation coefficient of +2.3 between variables X and Y. She is ….because that correlation is “like, way high.” She also feels that this answer “proves that X is like, causing Y.” What are three problems with Sandy’s conclusions?
- Contrast probability and nonprobability sampling methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?
- Contrast experimental with quasi-experimental methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?
- List the main sections (and subsections) of a research report.