NR 601 Midetrm Exam Study Guide

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NR 601 Midterm Exam Study Guide

Chapter 1: Changes with Aging – Notes

  • Fundamental Considerations
  • Physiological Changes with Aging
  • Laboratory Values in Older Adults
  • Pharmacokinetic & Pharmacodynamic Changes
  • Absorption
  • Distribution
  • Metabolism
  • Elimination
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Presenting Features of Illness & Disease In The Elderly
  • Chronic Illness & Functional Capacity

Chapter 1: Changes with Aging – Review Questions

  • Reference ranges or values are those intervals in which 95 % of the values fall within a specific population.
  • All of the following statements are true about renal function in the elderly except: serum creatinine is a sensitive indicator of renal impairment.
  • Of all the pharmacokinetic changes associated with aging, which is the most significant?
  • Esophageal erosions can be caused by drugs when:
  • Biotransformation of drugs primarily occurs in:
  • Changes in renal function associated with aging are most likely to result in:
  • All of the following drugs are known to be nephrotoxic except:
  • Under reporting of symptoms occurs generally when the elderly:
  • The most prevalent chronic disease in the elderly is:

Chapter 3: Exercise in Older Adults – Notes

  • Americans more than 65 years now represent the most rapidly growing segment of the US population.
  • These numbers will increase exponentially.
  • Anticipate skyrocketing of medical costs for chronic health conditions.
  • Lifestyle interventions at any age can mitigate the effects of chronic illness.
  • There has been an increase in obesity in older adults, from 22% in 1994 to 38% in 2009-2010.
  • Available Resources
  • Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise for Older Adults
  • Patient Barriers
  • Patient Facilitators
  • Medical contraindications for Exercise Therapy
  • Plan for Incorporating Exercise into Patient Encounter
  • Key Guidelines for Safe Physical Activity (Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 3008)
  • Examples of common Health Conditions in Older Adults with Exercise Recommendations

Chapter 3: Exercise in Older Adults – Questions

  • Strategies to promote increased physical activity:
  • Additional data:
  • National guidelines to consider?
  • Screening tools?
  • POC

Chapter 8: Chest Disorders – Notes

Chapter 8: Chest Disorders – Questions

  • Additional subjective information you will ask?
  • Additional objective information you will examine?
  • DDx:
  • Radiological examinations or additional diagnostic studies?
  • Treatment and prescription:
  • Potential complications from treatment:
  • Additional laboratory tests to consider?
  • Looking for a consult?

Chapter 5: Symptoms & Syndromes – CP – Notes

  • Etiology:
  • Occurrence:One of the most common causes of ER visits – 5 million/year.
  • Age:Risk increases with age due to CAD, HTN, lung cancer, cardiac arrhythmias, DM, recent immobilization.
  • Gender:Atypical presentation common in females.
  • Ethnicity:
  • Contributing factors:
  • Signs and symptoms:
  • Diagnostic tests:
  • DDx:
  • Treatment:
  • Follow Up:
  • Sequelae:A
  • Prevention & prophylaxis:
  • Referral:
  • Education:

Chapter 5: Signs & Symptoms – Questions

  • Additional information from history?
  • Potential contributors to constipation?
  • What physical exam is indicated?
  • Diagnostic testing?
  • Non pharmacological treatments to consider?

Chapter 2: Health Promotion – Questions

  • Risk factors for cardiovascular disease:
  • Problem list:
  • Included in primary care visit:
  • Tests & Screenings:
  • Recommended interventions

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