NR 508 Midterm Exam 1 – Question and Answers

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NR 508 Midterm Exam Week 4 – Question and Answers

  1. Osteopenia is diagnosed in a 55-year-old woman who has not had a period in 15 months. She has a positive family history of breast cancer. The primary care NP should recommend:
  2.  A woman is in her first trimester of pregnancy. She tells the primary care nurse practitioner (NP) that she continues to have severe morning sickness on a daily basis. The NP notes a weight loss of 1 pound from her previous visit 2 weeks prior. The NP should consult an obstetrician and prescribe:
  3. A 75-year-old patient who has cardiovascular disease reports insomnia and vomiting for several weeks. The primary care NP orders thyroid function tests. The tests show TSH is decreased and T4 is increased. The NP should consult with an endocrinologist and order:
  4. Question 4: A 55-year-old patient with no prior history of hypertension has a blood pressure greater than 140/90 on three separate occasions. The patient does not smoke, has a body mass index of 24, and exercises regularly. The patient has no known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The primary care NP should:
  5. Question 5: A patient reports fatigue, weight loss, and dry skin. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) orders thyroid function tests. The patient’s thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 40 microunits/mL, and T4 is 0.1 ng/mL. The NP should refer the patient to an endocrinologist and prescribe:
  6. Question 6: When prescribing a medication for a chronic condition, the primary care NP should tell the patient:
  7. Question 7: A child who has congenital hypothyroidism takes levothyroxine 75 mcg/day. The child weighs 15 kg. The primary care NP sees the child for a 3-year-old check-up. The NP should consult with a pediatric endocrinologist to discuss:
  8. Question 8:A patient who has IBS experiences diarrhea, bloating, and pain but does not want to take medication. The primary care NP should recommend:
  9. Question 9:A woman who uses a transdermal contraceptive calls the primary care NP to report that while dressing that morning she discovered that the patch had come off and she was unable to find the patch. The NP should tell her to apply a new patch and:
  10. A patient has been diagnosed with IBS and tells the primary care NP that symptoms of diarrhea and cramping are worsening. The patient asks about possible drug therapy to treat the symptoms. The NP should prescribe:
  11. A patient wants to know why a cheaper version of a drug cannot be used when the primary care NP writes a prescription for a specific brand name of the drug and writes, “Dispense as Written.” The NP should explain that a different brand of this drug:
  12. A patient comes to the clinic with a history of syncope and weakness for 2 to 3 days. The primary care NP notes thready, rapid pulses and 3-second capillary refill. An ECG reveals a heart rate of 198 beats per minute with a regular rhythm. The NP should:(PSVT)
  13. An adolescent girl has chosen Depo-Provera as a contraceptive method and tells the primary care NP that she likes the fact that she won’t have to deal with pills or periods. The primary care NP should tell her that she:
  14. A patient who is taking nifedipine develops mild edema of both feet. The primary care NP should contact the patient’s cardiologist to discuss nr 508 midterm exam
  15. A patient who is taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of urinary tract infections tells the primary care NP that a sibling recently died from a sudden cardiac arrest, determined to be from long QT syndrome. The NP should:
  16. A patient has three consecutive blood pressure readings of 140/95 mm Hg. The patient’s body mass index is 24. A fasting plasma glucose is 100 mg/dL. Creatinine clearance and cholesterol tests are normal. The primary care NP should order:
  17. A male patient tells the primary care NP he is experiencing decreased libido, lack of energy, and poor concentration. The NP performs an examination and notes increased body fat and gynecomastia. A serum testosterone level is 225 ng/dL. The NP’s next action should be to nr 508 midterm exam
  18. A woman has severe IBS and takes hyoscyamine sulfate (Levsin), simethicone (Phazyme), and a TCA. She reports having continued severe diarrhea. The primary care NP should:
  19. A patient is given a diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. A laboratory test confirms the presence of Helicobacter pylori. The primary care NP orders a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) before meals twice daily, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. After 14 days of treatment, H. pyloriis still present. The NP should order:
  20. A patient is taking drug A and drug B. The primary care NP notes increased effects of drug B. The NP should suspect that in this case drug A is a cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme:
  21. The primary care NP sees a new patient who has diabetes and hypertension and has been taking a thiazide diuretic for 6 months. The patient’s blood pressure at the beginning of treatment was 150/95 mm Hg. The blood pressure today is 138/85 mm Hg. The NP should:
  22. A patient has been taking antibiotics to treat recurrent pneumonia. The patient is in the clinic after having diarrhea for 5 days with six to seven liquid stools each day. The primary care NP should:
  23. The primary care NP has referred a child who has significant gastrointestinal reflux disease to a specialist for consideration for a fundoplication and gastrostomy tube placement. The child’s weight is 80% of what is recommended for age, and a recent swallow study revealed significant risk for aspiration. The child’s parents do not want the procedure. The NP should nr 508 midterm exam
  24. The primary care NP prescribes an extended-cycle monophasic pill regimen for a young woman who reports having multiple partners. Which statement by the patient indicates she understands the regimen?
  25. The primary care NP prescribes an inhaled corticosteroid for a patient who has asthma. The third-party payer for this patient denies coverage for the brand that comes in the specific strength the NP prescribes. The NP should:
  26. A patient with primary hypercholesterolemia is taking an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. All of the patient’s baseline LFTs were normal. At a 6-month follow-up visit, the patient reports occasional headache. A lipid profile reveals a decrease of 20% in the patient’s LDL cholesterol. The NP should:
  27. A patient who takes a thiazide diuretic will begin taking an ACE inhibitor. The primary care NP should counsel the patient to:
  28. A thin 52-year-old woman who has recently had a hysterectomy tells the primary care NP she is having frequent hot flashes and vaginal dryness. A recent bone density study shows early osteopenia. The woman’s mother had CHD. She has no family history of breast cancer. The NP should prescribe:
  29. A patient who will begin using nitroglycerin for angina asks the primary care NP how the medication works to relieve pain. The NP should tell the patient that nitroglycerin acts to:
  30. A patient is in the clinic complaining of nausea and vomiting that has lasted 2 to 3 days. The patient has dry oral mucous membranes, a blood pressure of 90/56 mm Hg, a pulse of 96 beats per minute, and a temperature of 38.8° C. The primary care NP notes a capillary refill of greater than 3 seconds. The NP should:
  31. A patient who has severe arthritis and who takes nonsteroidalantiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) daily develops a duodenal ulcer. The patient has tried a cyclooxygenase-2 selective NSAID in the past and states that it is not as effective as the current NSAID. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) should:
  32. A patient who has stable angina and uses sublingual nitroglycerin tablets is in the clinic and begins having chest pain. The primary care NP administers a nitroglycerin tablet and instructs the patient to lie down. The NP’s next action should be to:
  33. A primary care NP sees a patient who is being treated for heart failure with digoxin, a loop diuretic, and an ACE inhibitor. The patient reports having nausea. The NP notes a heart rate of 60 beats per minute and a blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg. The NP should:
  34. A patient who is taking an oral anticoagulant is in the clinic in the late afternoon and reports having missed the morning dose of the medication because the prescription was not refilled. The primary care NP should counsel this patient to:
  35. A primary care NP has prescribed phentermine for a patient who is obese. The patient loses 10 lb in the first month but reports that the drug does not seem to be suppressing appetite as much as before. The NP should:
  36. A 45-year-old patient who has a positive family history but no personal history of coronary artery disease is seen by the primary care NP for a physical examination. The patient has a body mass index of 27 and a blood pressure of 130/78 mm Hg. Laboratory tests reveal low-density lipoprotein, 110 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein, 70 mg/dL; and triglycerides, 120 mg/dL. The patient does not smoke but has a sedentary lifestyle. The NP should recommend:
  37. A patient has heart failure. A recent echocardiogram reveals decreased compliance of the left ventricle and poor ventricular filling. The patient takes low-dose furosemide and an ACE inhibitor. The primary care NP sees the patient for a routine physical examination and notes a heart rate of 92 beats per minute and a blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg. The NP should:
  38. A patient takes an antispasmodic and an occasional antidiarrheal medication to treat IBS. The patient comes to the clinic and reports having dry mouth, difficulty urinating, and more frequent constipation. The primary care NP notes a heart rate of 92 beats per minute. The NP should:
  39. A patient who has had four to five liquid stools per day for 4 days is seen by the primary care NP. The patient asks about medications to stop the diarrhea. The NP tells the patient that antidiarrheal medications are:
  40. A patient who has angina is taking nitroglycerin and long-acting nifedipine. The primary care NP notes a persistent blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg at several follow-up visits. The patient reports lightheadedness associated with standing up. The NP should consult with the patient’s cardiologist about changing the medication to:
  41. A patient who has been taking digoxin 0.25 mg daily for 6 months reports that it is not working as well as it did initially. The primary care NP should:
  42. A patient is taking spironolactone and comes to the clinic complaining of weakness and tingling of the hands and feet. The primary care NP notes a heart rate of 62 beats per minute and a blood pressure of 100/58 mm Hg. The NP should:
  43. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) sees a patient in the clinic who has a blood pressure of 130/85 mm Hg. The patient’s laboratory tests reveal high-density lipoprotein, 35 mg/dL; triglycerides, 120 mg/dL; and fasting plasma glucose, 100 mg/dL. The NP calculates a body mass index of 29. The patient has a positive family history for cardiovascular disease. The NP should:
  44. A patient who has primary hyperlipidemia and who takes atorvastatin (Lipitor) continues to have LDL cholesterol of 140 mg/dL after 3 months of therapy. The primary care NP increases the dose from 10 mg daily to 20 mg daily. The patient reports headache and dizziness a few weeks after the dose increase. The NP should nr 508 midterm exam
  45. The primary care NP is seeing a patient for a hospital follow-up after the patient has had a first myocardial infarction. The patient has a list of the prescribed medications and tells the NP that “no one explained anything about them.” The NP’s initial response should be to:
  46. A primary care NP sees a 5-year-old child who is morbidly obese. The child has an elevated hemoglobin A1c and increased lipid levels. Both of the child’s parents are overweight but not obese, and they tell the NP that they see nothing wrong with their child. They both state that it is difficult to refuse their child’s requests for soda or ice cream. The NP should nr 508 midterm exam
  47. A primary care NP is developing a handout to give to patients who will begin self-administering insulin. When developing this handout, the NP should:
  48. A patient reports having occasional acute constipation with large, hard stools and pain and asks the primary care NP about medication to treat this condition. The NP learns that the patient drinks 1500 mL of water daily; eats fruits, vegetables, and bran; and exercises regularly. The NP should recommend nr 508 midterm exam
  49. A patient who has heart failure has been treated with furosemide and an ACE inhibitor. The patient’s cardiologist has added digoxin to the patient’s medication regimen. The primary care NP who cares for this patient should expect to monitor:
  50. A 55-year-old woman has not had menstrual periods for 5 years and tells the primary care nurse practitioner (NP) that she is having increasingly frequent vasomotor symptoms. She has no family history or risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) or breast cancer but is concerned about these side effects of hormone therapy (HT). The NP should nr 508 midterm exam
  51. A primary care NP is performing a previsit health history on a new patient. The patient reports taking vitamins every day. The NP should nr 508 midterm exam
  52. An 80-year-old patient asks a primary care NP about OTC antacids for occasional heartburn. The NP notes that the patient has a normal complete blood count and normal electrolytes and a slight elevation in creatinine levels. The NP should recommend nr 508 midtrm exam
  53. A 50-year-old woman with a family history of CHD is experiencing occasional hot flashes and is having periods every 3 to 4 months. She asks the primary care NP about HT to relieve her symptoms. The NP should:
  54. A patient who has breast cancer has been taking toremifene for 2 weeks. She tells her primary care NP that she thinks her tumor has grown larger. The NP should:
  55. A patient reports having episodes of dizziness, nausea, and lightheadedness and describes a sensation of the room spinning when these occur. The primary care NP will refer the patient to a specialist who, after diagnostic testing, is likely to prescribe:
  56. The primary care NP sees a patient who has a history of hypertension and alcoholism. The patient is not taking any medications. The NP auscultates crackles in both lungs and palpates the liver 2 cm below the costal margin. Laboratory tests show an elevated creatinine level. The NP will refer this patient to a cardiologist and should prescribe nr 508 midterm exam
  57. A perimenopausal woman tells the primary care NP that she is having hot flashes and increasingly severe mood swings. The woman has had a hysterectomy. The NP should prescribe:
  58. A primary care NP prescribes a COCP for a woman who is taking them for the first time. After teaching, the woman should correctly state the need for using a backup form of contraception if she:
  59. A patient who has had a new onset of AF the day prior will undergo cardioversion that day. The primary care NP will expect the cardiologist to nr 508 midterm exam
  60. A patient in the clinic reports frequent episodes of bloating, abdominal pain, and loose stools to the primary care nurse practitioner (NP). An important question the NP should ask about the abdominal pain is:nr 508 midterm exam