NR 503 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 5 to 6

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NR 503 Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2018

  1. In a community-based hypertension testing program called HT-Aware, the detection level for high blood pressure is set at 140 mmHg for systolic blood pressure. A separate testing program called HT-Warning in the same community sets the level at 130 mmHg for high systolic blood pressure. Which statements are likely to be true?
  2. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is known to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. How many children are labeled “positive” by the school nurse?
  3. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is ….to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. What is the positive predictive value (PPV) of the optometrist’s exam nr 503 final exam ?
  4. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is …..to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. What is the negative predictive value (NPV) of the optometrist’s exam?
  5. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is ….to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. What is the overall sensitivity of the sequential examinations?
  6. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is known to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. What is the overall specificity of the sequential examinations?
  7. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is known to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. What would be the positive predictive value (PPV) of the exam for myopia if the optometrist tested all 1,000 children?
  8. Which of the following improves the reliability of diabetes screening tests nr 503 final exam
  9. A prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a quick screening test for prostate cancer. A researcher wants to evaluate it using two groups. Group A consists of 1,500 men who had biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate while group B consists of 3,000 age- and race-matched men all of whom showed no cancer at biopsy. The results of the PSA screening test in each group is …..in the table. What is the sensitivity of the PSA screening test in the combined groups?
  10. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is ….to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. What is the positive predictive value (PPV) of the school nurse’s exam?
  11. A prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a quick screening test for prostate cancer. A researcher wants to evaluate it using two groups. Group A consists of 1,500 men who had biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate while group B consists of 3,000 age- and race-matched men all of whom showed no cancer at biopsy. The results of the PSA screening test in each group is ……in the table.
    What is the specificity of the screening test in the combined groups?
  12. Two neurologists, Drs. J and K, independently examined 70 magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for evidence of brain tumors. As shown in the table below, the neurologists read each MRI as either “positive” or “negative” for brain tumors.
    Based on the above information, the overall percent agreement between the two doctors including all observations is:
  13. A prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a quick screening test for prostate cancer. A researcher wants to evaluate it using two groups. Group A consists of 1,500 men who had biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate while group B consists of 3,000 age- and race-matched men all of whom showed no cancer at biopsy. The results of the PSA screening test in each group is …..in the table.
    What is the positive predictive value (PPV) of the screening test in the combined groups?
  14. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is …..to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children …..as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. How many children will be labeled myopic following the optometrist’s exam?
  15. A prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a quick screening test for prostate cancer. A researcher wants to evaluate it using two groups. Group A consists of 1,500 men who had biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate while group B consists of 3,000 age- and race-matched men all of whom showed no cancer at biopsy. The results of the PSA screening test in each group is ……in the table nr 503 final exam
  16. The PSA screening test is …..in the same way in two equal-sized populations of men living in different areas of the United States, but the proportion of false positives among those who have a positive PSA test in the first population is lower than that among those who have a positive PSA test in the second population. What is the likely explanation for this finding nr 503 final exam ?
  17. Test A has a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 90%. Test B has a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 98%. In a community of 10,000 people with 5% prevalence of the disease, Test A has always …..before Test B. What is the best reason for changing the order of the tests?
  18. Two neurologists, Drs. J and K, independently examined 70 magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for evidence of brain tumors. As shown in the table below, the neurologists read each MRI as either “positive” or “negative” for brain tumors.
    What is the estimate of kappa for the reliability of the two doctors’ test results?
  19. This table represents the results of coronary magnetic resonance (CMR) angiography compared to x-ray angiography (the gold standard in diagnosis of coronary artery disease) in a high-risk population of patients scheduled to undergo x-ray angiography for suspected coronary artery disease nr 503 final exam
    In the general population, the prevalence of coronary artery disease is approximately 6%. Assuming that this sample of patients is representative of the general population, the sensitivity of the CMR test in the general population would be approximately:
  20. This table represents the results of coronary magnetic resonance (CMR) angiography compared to x-ray angiography (the gold standard in diagnosis of coronary artery disease) in a high-risk population of patients scheduled to undergo x-ray angiography for suspected coronary artery disease.
    After reviewing the results of the test comparison, an epidemiologist decides that the specificity of the test is too low. Using the same CMR images, he raises the cutoff value for a positive test to increase the specificity. What is the likely effect on the sensitivity nr 503 final exam ?
  21. In comparing the mammography readings of two technicians who evaluated the same set of 600 mammograms for presence of breast cancer from a generally representative sample of women from the population nr 503 final exam
  22. In a country with a population of 16 million people, 175,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2005. These included 45,000 deaths from tuberculosis (TB) in 135,000 persons who were sick with TB. Assume that the population remained constant throughout the year. What was the annual mortality rate for the country during 2005?
  23. In a country with a population of 16 million people, 175,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2005. These included 45,000 deaths from tuberculosis (TB) in 135,000 persons who were sick with TB. Assume that the population remained constant throughout the year. What is the proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) for TB during 2005 nr 503 final exam ?
  24. In a country with a population of 16 million people, 175,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2005. These included 45,000 deaths from tuberculosis (TB) in 135,000 persons who were sick with TB. Assume that the population remained constant throughout the year. Not all 135,000 cases of TB were …..during 2005. Which of the following statements is true nr 503 final exam ?
  25. Which of the following statements pertains to relative survival?
  26. What was the probability of surviving the second year given survival to the end of the first year?
  27. What was the cumulative probability of surviving after only 2 years of follow-up?
  28. An important assumption in this type of analysis is that nr 503 final exam
  29. In a country with a population of 16 million people, 175,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2005. These included 45,000 deaths from tuberculosis (TB) in 135,000 persons who were sick with TB. Assume that the population remained constant throughout the year. What was the case-fatality rate (CFR) from TB during 2005?
  30. Complete the table. What is the probability that a person …..in the study will survive to the end of the third year?
  31. Before reporting the results of this survival analysis, the investigators ….baseline characteristics of the 38 people who withdrew from the study before its end to those who had complete follow-up. This was ….for which of the following reasons:
  32. Which of the following is a key assumption …..in the use of life-table analysis?
  33. Which of the following is a measure of disease prognosis nr 503 final exam ?
  34. In 2003, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) ……in several countries, mainly in Asia. The disease was ……to have been …..by a virus that could … spread from person –to person from the index case occurring in mainland China. This table reflects the total number of reported cases of SARS and deaths among those cases as best as can be determined. What is the overall case-fatality rate for the worldwide epidemic of SARS?
  35. What is the probability chance of surviving 3 years after diagnosis?
  36. In 2003, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) appeared in several countries, mainly in Asia. The disease was … caused by a virus that could … spread from person –to person from the index case occurring in mainland China. This table reflects the total number of reported cases of SARS and deaths among those cases as best as can be determined. Based on the table, we can conclude that the case-fatality rate (CFR) in Vietnam nr 503 final exam
  37. In 2003, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) appeared in several countries, mainly in Asia. The disease was … by a virus that could … spread from person –to person from the index case occurring in mainland China. This table reflects the total number of reported cases of SARS and deaths among those cases as best as can be determined. Following a revision in the case definition, more persons … from an infection with the SARS virus. The inclusion of these cases, almost all asymptomatic, did not impact the total number of SARS fatalities. What happened to the case-fatality rate (CFR) following this reclassification?
  38. What is the … of … the second year of the study … the first year?
  39. For all people in the study, what is the probability of surviving to the end of the second year nr 503 final exam?
  40. What is the total number of person-years of follow-up for patients in the study assuming a median survival time of one half of the year for all persons dying during an interval and an observation time of one half of the year for all persons withdrawing from the study?
  41. Before reporting the results of this survival analysis, the investigators compared baseline characteristics of the 44 people who withdrew from the study before its end to those who had complete follow-up ……nr 503 final exam