MKT 305 Week 3 Quiz 2 Chapter 3 and 4 – Question and Answers

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MKT 305 Week 3 Quiz 2 Test Bank (Question with Answers)

Chapter 3 (50 True/False, 75 MCQ, 10 Essay)

Chapter 4 (50 True/False, 95 MCQ, 6 Essay)

  1. Perception refers to a change in behavior resulting from the interaction between a person and a stimulus.
  2. Comprehension refers to a consumer’s awareness and interpretation of reality.
  3. Learning can occur without even trying.
  4. Perception represents a subjective reality.
  5. The first stage of the perceptual process is comprehension.
  6. The process of bringing some stimulus within the proximity of a consumer so that it can be sensed by one of the five human senses is called attention.
  7. Sensation describes a consumer’s immediate response to information.
  8. Attention is the purposeful allocation of information-processing capacity toward developing an understanding of something.
  9. Comprehension is the consumer’s attempt to derive meaning from information received.
  10. Consumer perception involves two phases: sensing and organizing mkt 305 week 3 quiz
  11. Sensing represents a delayed response to stimuli that has come into contact with one of the consumer’s five senses.
  12. Cognition refers to the process by which the human brain assembles the sensory evidence into something recognizable.
  13. The term cognitive refers to a mental or thinking process.
  14. Depending on the extent to which a stimulus can be categorized, three possible reactions may occur:  assimilation, accommodation, or contrast.
  15. Accommodation occurs when a consumer easily recognizes a round, red fruit as an apple.
  16. Contrast occurs when a stimulus does not share enough in common with existing categories to allow categorization.
  17. The perceptual process ends with some reaction mkt 305 week 3 quiz
  18. Selective perception includes selective exposure, selective attention, and selective retention.
  19. On his way to work, Hank passes by many billboards and many ads play on the radio while he’s driving, but he only sees and hears a few of them.  This is an example of selective distortion.
  20. Selective cognition involves paying attention to only certain stimuli mkt 305 week 3 quiz
  21. Marketers use the term noise to describe the idea that consumers are often ……with too much information in their daily lives.
  22. Selective distortion is a process by which consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs.
  23. Subliminal processing refers to the way in which consumers can be ……without their brain even sensing being exposed to a stimulus.
  24. Subliminal persuasion is extremely effective.
  25. The JND (just noticeable difference) represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same.
  26. Subliminal stimuli are below the cognitive threshold of perception.
  27. Weber’s Law states that as the intensity of the initial stimulus decreases, a consumer’s ability to detect differences between two levels of the stimulus decreases.
  28. The JMD (just meaningful difference) represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same.
  29. Implicit memory is memory for things that a person did not try to remember.
  30. Voluntary memory occurs when a person is trying to remember the stimuli, such as when learning is intentional.
  31. Learning requires attention.
  32. The mere exposure effect has the greatest effect on familiar objects.
  33. The mere exposure effect works best when the consumer is ……from processing the focal stimulus.
  34. Product placements involve branded products being …..or mentioned in movies or television shows.
  35. Involuntary attention occurs when a person is …….by a loud noise and turns his head toward the source of the noise.
  36. All things equal, a consumer is more likely to pay attention to stronger stimuli than to weaker stimuli.
  37. Involvement refers to the personal relevance toward, or interest in, a particular product.
  38. Attention refers to the interpretation or understanding that a consumer develops about some stimulus.
  39. With reactive learning, consumers simply sense and react (or respond) to the environment.
  40. Hans searched the Internet, talked to friends, and visited several stores when deciding on a new cell phone.  Hans was ……in proactive learning.
  41. Classical conditioning and cognitive conditioning are two major approaches found in behavioral learning theory.
  42. When a cat learns to run to the kitchen when it hears the sound of the electric can opener, instrumental conditioning has occurred.
  43. In classical conditioning, the primary stimulus is the stimulus with which a behavioral response is already associated.
  44. To be effective, the conditioned stimuli should be …….before the unconditioned stimuli, and the paring of the two should be done consistently and with repetition.
  45. With classical conditioning, behavior is …..through reinforcement mkt 305 week 3 quiz
  46. In instrumental conditioning, discriminative stimuli are stimuli that are ……from other stimuli because they alone signal the presence of a reinforcer.
  47. Shaping is a process through which the desired behavior is altered over time, in small increments.
  48. In instrumental conditioning, all reinforcement must be positive.  Otherwise, behavioral change will not occur.
  49. Negative reinforcement refers to the removal of bad stimuli as a way of encouraging behavior.
  50. Behaviors often cease when reinforcers are no longer present.

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