BIOS 256 Lab 5 Assignment
Part A. Reviewing Your Knowledge (pg. 619-621)
A. Renal Structures
Write the renal structure that the phrase describes.
- Urine-forming structure of the kidney.
- Region of the kidney deep to cortex; contains collecting ducts.
- Extensions of renal cortex found in between renal pyramids.
- Urine flowing through this structure drains into a minor calyx.
- Located between renal fascia and renal capsule.
- Apex of renal pyramid.
- Urine flowing through this structure drains into the renal pelvis.
- Vertical fissure in concave surface of kidney through which blood vessels and ureters pass.
- Covers outer surface of kidney.
- Dense irregular connective tissue that covers the adipose capsule and attaches the kidney to the abdominal wall.
- Receives urine from the major calyces.
- Space within kidney that is adjacent to renal medulla, contains calyces and renal pelvis.
- Cup-like structure that is located in renal sinus that receives urine from openings of papillary ducts.
- Cone-shaped structures located within the renal medulla.
- Outermost region of the kidney, contains renal corpuscles.
B. Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra
Write the name of the structure that the phrase describes.
- Detrusor muscle is the main muscle for this structure.
- Region of male urethra that passes through the prostate gland.
- Two openings in posterior urinary bladder wall.
- Region of male urethra that passes through penis.
- Area bounded by ureteral openings and internal urethral orifice.
- Voluntary skeletal muscle in urogenital diaphragm that allows passage of urine to exterior of body.
- Carries urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder.
- Urine is excreted through this opening.
- Circular smooth muscle that involuntarily controls passage of urine from the urinary bladder to the urethra.
- Anterior opening in urinary bladder that leads into urethra.
- Region of male urethra that passes through urogenital diaphragm.
C. The Nephron
Write the name of the structure the phrase describes.
- Blood vessel that delivers blood to glomerulus.
- Blood from the efferent arteriole flows into this capillary bed.
- Structure that surrounds glomerulus and collects filtrate.
- Section of renal tubule that descends into medulla.
- Capillary network within the renal corpuscle.
- Structure composed of glomerulus and glomerular capsule.
- Blood vessel that drains blood from glomerulus.
- Capillary loops that extend from the efferent arteriole and run along loop of Henle (nephron loop) of juxtamedullary nephrons.
D. Urine Formation and Flow
Trace the flow of filtrate and urine through the urinary system. Write the structures in order, starting with the glomerulus.
E. Blood Flow Through the Kidneys
Trace blood flow through the kidneys. Start at the renal artery and number the blood vessels in sequence.
Part B. Using Your Knowledge (pg. 623-624)
Observe the X-ray in Figure 36.11 and identify the structures.
- Major Calyx
- Renal Pelvis
- Is the urinary bladder full or partially voided? [Refer to Figure 2.5(d) for another view of the urinary bladder.]
- Explain why pregnancy increases the frequency of urination.
- Epithelial cells that reabsorb solutes are cuboidal, but epithelial cells involved in filtration are thin, squamous cells. The cuboidal cells contain more cytoplasm and organelles, especially mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), than the squamous cells. Why do the cuboidal cells of the kidney tubules need more mitochondria and RER?
- Define ptosis of the kidney
- Define incontinence and describe how this situation would be different in a child under 2 years old versus in an adult.